What are the most important attributes of good spaced repetition memory prompts?

This note collects ideas about how to encode knowledge into Spaced repetition memory system prompts, both to support memory of facts but also to foster richer understanding (Spaced repetition memory systems can be used to develop conceptual understanding).

A work in progress:

“Covering” material:

Meta / mental models:

Related: The “reflected essay” metaphor for the goal for the mnemonic medium


See section Improving the mnemonic medium: making better cards in How can we develop transformative tools for thought? and Nielsen (2018, 2019).

Nielsen, M. (2018). Augmenting Long-term Memory. http://augmentingcognition.com/ltm.html

Nielsen, M. (2019, January). Using spaced repetition systems to see through a piece of mathematics. http://cognitivemedium.com/srs-mathematics

Wozniak, P. (1999, February). Effective learning: Twenty rules of formulating knowledge. https://www.supermemo.com/en/archives1990-2015/articles/20rules