Optimizing spaced repetition system schedules

Many papers published along these lines. Collecting some favorites:

Some of my own notes on the subject:


  • Tabibian, B., Upadhyay, U., De, A., Zarezade, A., Schölkopf, B., & Gomez-Rodriguez, M. (2019). Enhancing human learning via spaced repetition optimization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(10), 3988–3993. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1815156116
    • derives an “optimal” scheduling algorithm using control theory
  • Settles, B., & Meeder, B. (2016). A Trainable Spaced Repetition Model for Language Learning. Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers), 1848–1858. https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/P16-1174
    • “high-life regression” tested at scale on Duolingo
Last updated 2024-04-12.